144 Main Road, Sea Point

Cape Town

021 433 1710

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

BluBird Shopping Centre, Birnam

Gauteng

087 075 0990

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

CT: 021 433 1710

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

JHB: 087 075 0990

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

CT: 021 433 1710

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

JHB: 087 075 0990

Mon - Fri: 9:00 - 17:00, Saturdays 10:00 - 12:00

Medical References

Headaches

Stovner L., et al. , The global burden of headache: a documentation of headache prevalence and disability worldwide. Cephalalgia, 2007. 27(3): p. 193–210

van Suijlekom HA, Lame I, Stomp-van den Berg SG, Kessels AG, Weber WE. Quality of life of patients with cervicogenic headache: a comparison with control subjects and patients with migraine or tension-type headache.Headache . 2003;43:1034-1041.

Treleaven J., Jull G., Atkinson L., Cervical musculoskeletal dysfunction in post-concussional headache. Cephalalgia, 1994. 14(4): p. 273–9; discussion 257.

Antonaci F., Sjaastad O., Cervicogenic headache: a real headache. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep, 2011. 11(2): p. 149–55.

Racicki, S, Gerwin, S, DiClaudio, S, Reinmann, S, Donaldson, M. Conservative physical therapy management for the treatment of cervicogenic headache: a systematic review. JMPT Vol 21, Number 2, 2013 pp.113-124.
Pain can be deep, continous or fluctuating in nature

Aggravated by awkward neck postures

(5,6)

Ankle & Foot Pain

Kendrick Alan Whitney Plantar Fasciosis Copyright 2010-2013 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp accessed 4/16/14
Thomas Michaud, Differential Diagnosis of Heel Pain Dynamic Chiropractic – January 15, 2013, Vol. 31, Issue 02
DeMaio M, Paine R, Mangine RE, Drez DJr. Plantar fasciitis. Orthopedics 1993; 16:1153-1163.
Neufeld SK. Plantar Fasciitis: Evaluation and Treatment J Am Acad Orthop Surg June 2008 vol. 16 no. 6 338-346
Singh D, Angel J, Bentley G, Trevino SG. Fortnightly review. plantar fasciitis.
BMJ. 1997;315:172-175.
DeMaio M, Paine R, Mangine RE, Drez D,Jr. Plantar fasciitis. Orthopedics. 1993;16:1153-1163.
Barrett SJ, O’Malley R. Plantar fasciitis and other causes of heel pain. Am Fam Physician. 1999;59:2200-2206.
Young CC, Rutherford DS, Niedfeldt MW. Treatment of plantar fasciitis. Am Fam Physician. 2001;63:467-74, 477-8.
Michaud T, New Techniques For Treating Plantar Fasciitis Competitor Group Published Mar. 6, 2014

de Noronha M, Refshauge KM, Herbert RD, Kilbreath SL, Hertel J. Do voluntary strength, proprioception, range of motion, or pos- tural sway predict occurrence of lateral ankle sprain? Br J Sports Med. 2006;40:824-828; discussion 828.

McGuine TA, Keene JS. The effect of a balance training program on the risk of ankle sprains in high school athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34:1103-1111.
Ivins D. Acute ankle sprain: an update. Am Fam Physician. Nov 15 2006;74(10):1714-20.

TMJ 

Fricton JR: Temporomandibular muscle and joint disorders. Pain 2004; 109:530.
Cantanzariti J, Debuse T, Duquesnoy B: Chronic neck pain and masticatory dysfunction. Joint Bone Spine 2005; 72:515-519.
Palazzi C, Miralles R, Soto MA, Santander H, Zuaiga C, Moya H: Body position effects on EMG activity of the sternocleidomastoid and masseter muscles in patients with myogenic-craniocervical-mandibular dysfunction. J Craniomandib Practice 1996: 14(3):200-9
Gonzalez H, Mann A. Forward Head Posture: Its Structural and Functional Influence on the Stomatognathic System: A Conceptual Study. Cranio. 1996 Jan;14(1):71-80.
Yun PL, Kim YK: The role of facial trauma as a possible etiologic factor in temporomandibular joint disorder. J Oral Maxil Surg 2005; 63(11):1576-1583.
Sale h, Isberg A. Delayed temporomandibular joint pain and dysfunction induced by whiplash trauma: a controlled prospective study. J American Dental Assoc. Aug 2007;138(8) 1084-91
Egermark, I. and Thilander, B. (1992) Craniomandibular disorders with special reference to orthodontic treatment: an evaluation from childhood to adulthood, American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 101, 28–34.
Gremillion HA, Mahan PE: The prevalence and etiology of temporomandibular disorders and orofacial pain. Tex Dent J 2000; 117:30-39.
Von Korff M, Dworkin SF, LeResche L, et al: An epidemiologic comparison of pain complaints. Pain 1988;32(2):173-183.
Furto ES, Cleland JA, Whitman JM, Olson KA. Manual physical therapy interventions and exercise for patients with temporomandibular disorders. Cranio. 2006;24:283–291.

Back Pain

Mckenzie.R. Treat your own neck. Spinal publications

Neck Pain 

Lewit K. Manipulative Therapy: Musculoskeletal Medicine. Churchill Livingstone / Eselvier, 2010
Bovim G, Schrader H, Sand T. Neck pain in the general population. Spine 1994;19:1307–9.
Hult L. Cervical, dorsal and lumbar spinal syndromes. Acta Orthop Scand 1954;17(suppl):175–277
Kvarnstrom S. Occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in a manufacturing industry with special attention to occupational shoulder disorders. Scand J Rehabil Med 1983;8(suppl):1–114.
Grimby-Ekman A, University of Gothenburg, Stress and neck pain are more common in women than men. ScienceDaily 2010:December 6
Hush JM, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Risk factors for neck pain in office workers: A prospective study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:81.
Clair DA, Edmondston SJ, Allison GT. Physical therapy treatment dose for nontraumatic neck pain: A comparison between 2 patient groups. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:867–875
Bogduk, N.; Marsland, A. “The Cervical Zygapophysial Joints as a Source of Neck Pain,” Spine 13:610, 1988 Mckenzie.R. Treat your own neck. Spinal publications New Zealand limited. Raumati Beach, New Zealand. 5th edition.2011

Neck Pain 

Lewit K. Manipulative Therapy: Musculoskeletal Medicine. Churchill Livingstone / Eselvier, 2010
Bovim G, Schrader H, Sand T. Neck pain in the general population. Spine 1994;19:1307–9.
Hult L. Cervical, dorsal and lumbar spinal syndromes. Acta Orthop Scand 1954;17(suppl):175–277
Kvarnstrom S. Occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in a manufacturing industry with special attention to occupational shoulder disorders. Scand J Rehabil Med 1983;8(suppl):1–114.
Grimby-Ekman A, University of Gothenburg, Stress and neck pain are more common in women than men. ScienceDaily 2010:December 6
Hush JM, Maher CG, Refshauge KM. Risk factors for neck pain in office workers: A prospective study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2006;7:81.
Clair DA, Edmondston SJ, Allison GT. Physical therapy treatment dose for nontraumatic neck pain: A comparison between 2 patient groups. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006;36:867–875
Bogduk, N.; Marsland, A. “The Cervical Zygapophysial Joints as a Source of Neck Pain,” Spine 13:610, 1988 Mckenzie.R. Treat your own neck. Spinal publications New Zealand limited. Raumati Beach, New Zealand. 5th edition.2011

The Shoulder

McKenzie.R Treat your own Shoulder. Spinal publications. 

References OA HIP

Lane, N. Osteoarthritis of the Hip. NEJM 357;14, Oct 4, 2007
Byrd J. Evaluation of the hip: history and physical examination. North American Journal Of Sports Physical Therapy: NAJSPT [serial online]. November 2007;2(4):231-240.
Khan, A.M., McLoughlin, E. Hip Osteoarthritis: Where is the Pain? Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 2004 March.

Knee Pain

Johnson DP, Wakeley CJ, Watt I. Magnetic resonance imaging of patellar tendonitis. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1996;78:452–7Brukner, P. and K.M. Khan, Chapter 2: Sports Injuries, in Clinical Sports Medicine, P. Brukner and K.M. Khan, Editors. 1993, McGraw-Hill: Sydney. 
Garrick, J.G. and D.R. Webb, Sports Injuries: Diagnosis and management. 1990, Philadelphia: Saunders. xi, 347.
Richards, D.P., et al., Knee joint dynamics predict patellar tendinitis in elite volleyball players. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 1996. 24(5): p. 676-683.
Fredberg, U. and L. Bolvig, Jumper’s knee. Review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 1999. 9(2): p. 66-73. 
Witvrouw E, Bellemans J, Lysens R, Danneels L, Cambier D. Intrinsic risk factors for the development of patellar tendinitis in an athletic population. A two-year prospective study. Am J Sports Med. Mar-Apr 2001;29(2):190-5
Lian OB, Engebrestsen L, Bahr R. Prevalence of jumper’s knee among elite athletes from different sports. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33:561–7
Lian Ø, Engebretsen L, Ovrebø RV, Bahr R. Characteristics of the leg extensors in male volleyball players with jumper’s knee. Am J Sports Med. 1996;24:380-385.
Lian Ø, Refsnes PE, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Performance characteristics of volleyball players with patellar tendinopathy. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31:408-413.
Visentini PJ, Khan KM, Cook JL, Kiss ZS, Har- court PR, Wark JD. The VISA score: an index of severity of symptoms in patients with jumper’s knee (patellar tendinosis). Victorian Institute of Sport Tendon Study Group. J Sci Med Sport. 1998;1:22-28

Hand and Wrist

Papanicolaou GD, McCabe SJ, Firrell J. The prevalence and characteristics of nerve compression symptoms in the general population. J Hand Surg [Am] 2001;26:460-6.
Isam Atroshi, Christina Gummesson, Ragnar Johnsson, Ewald Ornstei, Jonas Ranstam, Ingmar Rosén, Prevalence of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome in a General Population. JAMA July 14, 1999, Vol 282, No. 2

https://www.chiropractic.ca/about-chiropractic/how-our-experts-can-help/chiropractic-treatment-for-everyone/pregnancy/

https://americanpregnancy.org/ pregnancy- health/chiropractic-care-during-pregnancy/

Treatment guideline references 

https://www.mayoclinic.org / tests-procedures/chiropractic-adjustment/about/pac-20393513

https://kinesiotaping.com  /about/what-is-the-kinesio-taping-method/ myphysioshop.com.au/products/k-tape

www.spinehealth.com /glossary/mobilization

www.activator.com

www.avonchiropracticclinic.com 

/blog/what-is-the-cox-flexion-distraction-technique

www.apta.org /StateIssues/DryNeedling/ ClinicalPracticeResourcePaper/